الأربعاء، 6 أغسطس، 2008

Aerospace Engineering


Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering behind the design, construction and science of aircraft and spacecraft. Aerospace engineering has broken into two major branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. The former deals with craft that stay within Earth's atmosphere, and the latter deals with craft that operate outside of Earth's atmosphere. While "aeronautical" was the original term, the broader "aerospace" has superseded it in usage, as flight technology advanced to include craft operating in outer space.

Modern flight vehicles undergo severe conditions such as differences in atmospheric pressure and temperature, or heavy structural load applied upon vehicle components. Consequently, they are usually the products of various technologies including aerodynamics, avionics, materials science and propulsion. These technologies are collectively known as aerospace engineering. Because of the complexity of the field, aerospace engineering is conducted by a team of engineers, each specializing in their own branches of science. The development and manufacturing of a flight vehicle demands careful balance and compromise between abilities, performance, available technology and costs.

List of aerospace engineering topics
Fluid mechanics - the study of fluid flow around objects. Specifically aerodynamics concerning the flow of air over bodies such as wings or through objects such as wind tunnels (see also lift and aeronautics).
Astrodynamics - the study of orbital mechanics including prediction of orbital elements when given a select few variables. While few schools in the United States teach this at the undergraduate level, several have graduate programs covering this topic (usually in conjunction with the Physics department of said college or university).
Statics and Dynamics (engineering mechanics) - the study of movement, forces, moments in mechanical systems.
Mathematics - because aerospace engineering heavily involves mathematics.
Electrotechnology - the study of electronics within engineering.
Propulsion - the energy to move a vehicle through the air (or in outer space) is provided by internal combustion engines, jet engines and turbomachinery, or rockets (see also propeller and spacecraft propulsion). A more recent addition to this module is electric propulsion and ion propulsion.
Control engineering - the study of mathematical modeling of the dynamic behavior of systems and designing them, usually using feedback signals, so that their dynamic behavior is desirable (stable, without large excursions, with minimum error). This applies to the dynamic behavior of aircraft, spacecraft, propulsion systems, and subsystems that exist on aerospace vehicles.
Aircraft structures - design of the physical configuration of the craft to withstand the forces encountered during flight. Aerospace engineering aims to keep structures lightweight.
Materials science - related to structures, aerospace engineering also studies the materials of which the aerospace structures are to be built. New materials with very specific properties are invented, or existing ones are modified to improve their performance.
Solid mechanics - Closely related to material science is solid mechanics which deals with stress and strain analysis of the components of the vehicle. Nowadays there are several Finite Element programs such as MSC Patran/Nastran which aid engineers in the analytical process.
Aeroelasticity - the interaction of aerodynamic forces and structural flexibility, potentially causing flutter, divergence, etc.
Avionics - the design and programming of computer systems on board an aircraft or spacecraft and the simulation of systems.
Risk and reliability - the study of risk and reliability assessment techniques and the mathematics involved in the quantitative methods.
Noise control - the study of the mechanics of sound transfer.
Flight test - designing and executing flight test programs in order to gather and analyze performance and handling qualities data in order to determine if an aircraft meets its design and performance goals and certification requirements.

The basis of most of these elements lies in theoretical mathematics, such as fluid dynamics for aerodynamics or the equations of motion for flight dynamics. However, there is also a large empirical component. Historically, this empirical component was derived from testing of scale models and prototypes, either in wind tunnels or in the free atmosphere. More recently, advances in computing have enabled the use of computational fluid dynamics to simulate the behavior of fluid, reducing time and expense spent on wind-tunnel testing.

Aerodynamics Books

Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving object. Aerodynamics is closely related to fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, with much theory shared between them. Aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, with the difference being that gas dynamics applies to all gases. Understanding the motion of air (often called a flow field) around an object enables the calculation of forces and moments acting on the object. Typical properties calculated for a flow field include velocity, pressure, density and temperature as a function of position and time. By defining a control volume around the flow field, equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy can be defined and used to solve for the properties. The use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical approximation and wind tunnel experimentation form the scientific basis for heavier-than-air flight.

Aerodynamic problems can be identified in a number of ways. The flow environment defines the first classification criterion. External aerodynamics is the study of flow around solid objects of various shapes. Evaluating the lift and drag on an airplane, the shock waves that form in front of the nose of a rocket or the flow of air over a hard drive head are examples of external aerodynamics. Internal aerodynamics is the study of flow through passages in solid objects. For instance, internal aerodynamics encompasses the study of the airflow through a jet engine or through an air conditioning pipe.

The ratio of the problem's characteristic flow speed to the speed of sound comprises a second classification of aerodynamic problems. A problem is called subsonic if all the speeds in the problem are less than the speed of sound, transonic if speeds both below and above the speed of sound are present (normally when the characteristic speed is approximately the speed of sound), supersonic when the characteristic flow speed is greater than the speed of sound, and hypersonic when the flow speed is much greater than the speed of sound. Aerodynamicists disagree over the precise definition of hypersonic flow; minimum Mach numbers for hypersonic flow range from 3 to 12. Most aerodynamicists use numbers between 5 and 8.

The influence of viscosity in the flow dictates a third classification. Some problems involve only negligible viscous effects on the solution, in which case viscosity can be considered to be nonexistent. The approximations to these problems are called inviscid flows. Flows for which viscosity cannot be neglected are called viscous flows.



1- Theoretical Aerodynamics
by Louis Melveille Milne-Thomson
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2-Aerodynamics for Engineering Students, Fifth Edition
by E. L. Houghton, P. W. Carpenter,
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3-Fundamentals of Aerodynamics
by John David Anderson
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4- Missile Aerodynamics
by Jack N. Nielsen
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5-Introduction to the aerodynamics of flight (NASA SP 367)
by Theodore A Talay
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6-Experiments in Aerodynamics (General Publication)
by Samuel Pierpont Langley
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7-Basic Helicopter Aerodynamics (Aiaa Education Series)
by J. Seddon .
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8-Bramwell's Helicopter Dynamics
by A. R. S. Bramwell
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9-Theory of Wing Sections:
Including a Summary of Airfoil Data
(Dover Books on Physics)
by Ira H. Abbott, A. E. von Doenhoff
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10-Hypersingular Integral Equations and Their Applications

(Differential and Integral Equations and Their Applications, 4) by I.K. Lifanov L.N. Poltavskii MG.M. Vainikko
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11- Analysis of Low Speed Unsteady Airfoil Flows
by Tuncer Cebeci, Max Platzer, Hsun Chen, Kuo-cheng Chang, Jian P. Shao
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12- Compressible Fluid Flow 1997

by Patrick H. Oosthuizen William Carscallen
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13- Analysis of Turbulent Flows
by Tuncer Cebeci
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14- Hypersonic and High Temperature Gas Dynamics
by John David Anderson
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15- Topics in Hyposonic Flow Theory
(Lecture Notes in Physics)
by R.K. Zeytounian
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16- Turbulent Shear Layers in Supersonic Flow,
2nd Edition
by Alexander J. Smits Jean-Paul Dussauge
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17- Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics
by Robert D. Zucker
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18- Ship Stability for Masters and Mates,
Fifth Edition
by Capt D R Derrett Bryan Barrass
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19- Accuracy and Stability of Numerical Algorithms
by Nicholas J. Higham
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20- Stability and Nonlinear Solid Mechanics
by Quoc Son Nguyen
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21- Stability Domains (Nonlinear Systems in Aviation, Aerospace, Aeronautics and Astronautics)
by Lyubomir T. Gruyitch

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22- Multiparameter Stability Theory With Mechanical Applications

(Series on Stability, Vibration and Control of Systems )
by Alexander P. Seyranian, Alexei A. Mailybaev

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23- Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Controls
by Jan Roskam
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24- Flight Dynamics Principles,
Second Edition
A Linear Systems Approach to Aircraft Stability and Control
(Elsevier Aerospace Engineering)
by Michael Cook
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25- Dynamical Systems: Stability, Theory and Applications
(Lecture Notes in Mathematics vol 35)
by N. B. Bhatia
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26- Dynamical Systems and Control
(Stability and Control: Theory, Methods and Applications, 22)
by Firdaus E. Udwadia, H.I. Weber, George Leitmann (Editors)
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27- Dynamical Systems, Graphs, and Algorithms
(Lecture Notes in Mathematics)
by George Osipenko
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28- Helicopter Dynamics
by A. R. S. Bramwell
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29- Analysis of Low Speed Unsteady Airfoil Flows
by Tuncer Cebeci, Max Platzer, Hsun Chen,
Kuo-cheng Chang, Jian P. Shao
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30- Unsteady Aerodynamics,
Aeroacoustics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines
by by Kenneth C. Hall (Editor),
Robert E. Kielb (Editor), Jeffrey P. Thomas (Editor)
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31- Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows
by Charles Hirsch
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32- Advanced Dynamics
(Aiaa Education Series)
by Shuh-Jing Ying
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Fluid mechanics Books

Fluid mechanics is the study of how fluids move and the forces on them. (Fluids include liquids and gases.) Fluid mechanics can be divided into fluid statics, the study of fluids at rest, and fluid dynamics, the study of fluids in motion. It is a branch of continuum mechanics, a subject which models matter without using the information that it is made out of atoms. The study of fluid mechanics goes back at least to the days of ancient Greece, when Archimedes made a beginning on fluid statics, which the medieval Muslim physicists, later combined with dynamics to give rise to fluid dynamics.However, fluid mechanics, especially fluid dynamics, is an active field of research with many unsolved or partly solved problems. Fluid mechanics can be mathematically complex. Sometimes it can best be solved by numerical methods, typically using computers. A modern discipline, called Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), is devoted to this approach to solving fluid mechanics problems. Also taking advantage of the highly visual nature of fluid flow is Particle Image Velocimetry, an experimental method for visualizing and analyzing fluid flow. Fluid mechanics is that branch of physics which deals with the properties of fluid,namely liquid and gases,and their interaction with forces.


1-Fluid Mechanics: With Problems and Solutions, and an Aerodynamics Laboratory Course,
1st Edition, 2005-05
by Egon Krause
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2- Essentials of Fluid Mechanics
(Applied Mathematical Sciences)
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3- Fluid Dynamics :Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation
by C. Pozrikidis
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4- Solutions manual for introduction to fluid mechanics 5th edition 1998-10
by Alan T. McDonald, Robert W Fox
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5- Turbulence in Fluids (Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications)
by M. Lesieur
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6-Multiphase Flow Dynamics 2:
Thermal and Mechanical Interactions ,
2nd Edition
by Nikolay I. Kolev
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7- Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow
by Mamoru Ishii Takashi Hibiki
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8- Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery
by S L DIXON
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9- Fluid Mechanics with Student Resources,
5th edition 2002-12
by Frank M. White
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10- Fluid Mechanics,
4th edition
by Frank M. White
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11- Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
(Series in computational methods in mechanics and thermal sciences)
by Dale A. Anderson
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12- Turbulent Flow Computation
(Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications)
by Bernard J. Geurts (Editor)
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13- Fluid Mechanics,
2nd Edition
by Pijush K. Kundu
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14- Fundamentals of Cavitation
(Fluid Mechanics and Its Applications)
by Jean-Pierre Franc, Jean-Marie Michel
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Aircraft Performance Books


1-Aircraft Performance
by Maido Saarlas
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2-Introduction to Aircraft Performance, Selection and Design 1984-03
by Francis J. Hale
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3- Airplane Aerodynamics and Performance
by Jan Roskam C. T. Lan
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4- Flight Performance of Fixed and Rotary Wing Aircraft
by Antonio Filippone
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Propulsion Books

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites. There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research. However, most spacecraft today are propelled by exhausting a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle at very high speed through a supersonic de Laval nozzle. This sort of engine is called a rocket engine.

All current spacecraft use chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some (such as the Pegasus rocket and SpaceShipOne) have used air-breathing engines on their first stage. Most satellites have simple reliable chemical thrusters (often monopropellant rockets) or resistojet rockets for orbital station-keeping and some use momentum wheels for attitude control. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades, and newer Western geo-orbiting spacecraft are starting to use them for north-south stationkeeping. Interplanetary vehicles mostly use chemical rockets as well, although a few have experimentally used ion thrusters (a form of electric propulsion) to great success.


1-Compressor Performance, Aerodynamics for the User
by Theodore Gresh
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2- Aircraft Propulsion Systems Technology and Design
(Aiaa Education Series) by Gordon C. Oates
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3-Rocket Propulsion Elements, 7th Edition
by George P. Sutton Oscar Biblarz
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4- Fundamentals of Jet Propulsion with Applications
(Cambridge Aerospace Series)
by Ronald D. Flack
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5-Elements of Propulsion:
Gas Turbines And Rockets (AIAA Education)
by Jack D. Mattingly
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6-Rocket and Spacecraft Propulsion:
Principles, Practice and New Developments
(Springer Praxis Books / Astronautical Engineering)
by Martin J.L. Turner
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7-Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion
(Aiaa Education)
by William H. Heiser, David T. Pratt,
Daniel H. Daley, Unmeel B. Mehta
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8-Aircraft Propulsion Systems Technology and Design
(Aiaa Education Series)
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9- Occult Ether Physics:
Tesla's Hidden Space Propulsion System
and the Conspiracy to Conceal It
by William Lyne
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10- Aerothermodynamics of Gas Turbine Rocket Propulsion,
Third Edition (Aiaa Education Series)
by Gordon C. Oates
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11- Wind Tunnel and Propulsion Test Facilities:
An Assessment of NASA's Capabilities to Serve National Needs
by Philip S. Anton
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12- Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems:
Enabling Technologies for Space Exploration
(Springer Praxis Books / Astronautical Engineering)
by Paul A. Czysz, Claudio Bruno
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13- The Development of the B 52 and Jet Propulsion :
A Case Study
by Mark David Mandeles
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14- Aerothermodynamics of Aircraft Engine Components
(Pandora Books)
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15- THE JET ENGINE
5th Edition 1969
by Rolls-Royce Limited.
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16- Jet Engines:
Fundamentals of Theory, Design and Operation 1997-12
by Klaus Hunecke
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17- Gas Turbine Performance
by Philip P. Walsh Paul Fletcher
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18- Air Engines
(IMechE Conference Transactions)
by Theodor Finkelstein, Allan J. Organ
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19- Rocket Propulsion Elements,
7th Edition
by George P. Sutton Oscar Biblarz
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20- Gas Turbine Theory
by Henry Cohen, G. F. C. Rogers, H. I. H. Saravanamuttoo,
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21- Air Engines
(IMechE Conference Transactions)
by Theodor Finkelstein, Allan J. Organ
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22- Heat Transfer in Industrial Combustion
by Charles E. Baukal
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23- Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
by John Heywood
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24- Dynamics of Combustion Systems
by A. K. Oppenheim
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25- Combustion Physics
by Chung K. Law
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26- Turbulent Combustion
by Norbert Peters
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27- Fuels of Opportunity:
Characteristics and Uses In Combustion Systems
by David Tillman, N. Stanley Harding
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28- Fluidized Bed Combustion
(Marcell Dekker)
by Simeon Oka
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29- Fundamentals and Technology of Combustion,
1st Edition, 2002-08
by F El-Mahallawy, S. E-Din Habik
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31- Combustion
by Irvin Glassman
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32- Aircraft Engine Design
(AIAA Education Series)
by Jack D. Mattingly, William H. Heiser, David T. Pratt,
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33- Civil Jet Aircraft Design
(Aiaa Education Series)
by Lloyd R. Jenkinson, Paul Simpkin, Darren Rhodes
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34- Aerothermodynamics of Gas Turbine Rocket Propulsion,
Third Edition
(Aiaa Education Series)
by Gordon C. Oates
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35- Advanced Gas Turbine Cycles :
A Brief Review of Power Generation Thermodynamics
by J. Horlock
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36- Gas Turbine Handbook: Principles and Practices
(3rd edition)
by Tony Giampaolo
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37- Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook,
Third Edition
by Meherwan P Boyce
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38- Compressor Performance, Aerodynamics for the User
by Theodore Gresh
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39- A Practical Guide to Compressor Technology
(2nd Edition)
by Heinz P. Bloch
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40- Compressors, Third Edition: Selection and Sizing
by Royce N. Brown
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41- Compressor Handbook
(McGraw-Hill Handbooks)
by Paul Hanlon
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Turbomachinery Books

In mechanical engineering, turbomachinery describes machines that transfer energy between a rotor and a fluid, including both turbines and compressors. While a turbine transfers energy from a fluid to a rotor, a compressor transfers energy from a rotor to a fluid. The two types of machines are governed by the same basic relationships including Newton's second law of motion and Euler's energy equation for compressible fluids. Centrifugal pumps are also turbomachines that transfer energy from a rotor to a fluid, usually a liquid, while turbines and compressors usually work with a gas.

1-Turbomachinery: Design and Theory
(Marcell Dekker)
by Rama S.R. Gorla
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2- Handbook of Turbomachinery,
2nd Edition
(Mechanical Engineering, No. 158)
by Earl Logan, Jr; Ramendra Roy
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3- Turbomachinery Flow Physics and Dynamic Performance
by Meinhard Schobeiri
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4-
Torsional Vibration of Turbo-Machinery
by Duncan Walker
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5- Turbomachinery Performance Analysis
by R. I. Lewis
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6-Fluid Machinery:
Performance, Analysis, and Design
by Terry Wright
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7-
Unsteady Aerodynamics,
Aeroacoustics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines
by by Kenneth C. Hall (Editor),
Robert E. Kielb (Editor), Jeffrey P. Thomas (Editor)
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8- Turbo-Machinery Dynamics
by A. S. Rangwala
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9- Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery
by S L DIXON
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10- Rotating Machinery Vibration:
From Analysis to Troubleshooting
(Mechanical Engineering )
by Maurice L. Adams
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Computational Fluid Dynamics Books

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is one of the branches of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the millions of calculations required to simulate the interaction of fluids and gases with the complex surfaces used in engineering. Even with simplified equations and high-speed supercomputers, only approximate solutions can be achieved in many cases. Ongoing research, however, may yield software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows. Validation of such software is often performed using a wind tunnel

1- Turbulence Modeling for CFD
by David C. Wilcox
link 1 password: gigapedia.org"
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2- MEGAFLOW - Numerical Flow Simulation for Aircraft Design:
Results of the second phase of the German CFD initiative MEGAFLOW,
presented during its closing ... and Multidisciplinary Design (NNFM))
by Norbert Kroll (Editor), Jens K. Fassbender (Editor)
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3- Computational Fluid Mechanics And Heat Transfer
(Series in Computational Methods and Physical
Processes in Mechanics and Thermal Sciences)
by John C. Tannehill Dale A. Anderson R. H. Pletcher
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4- Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics, Vol. 1:
Fundamental and General Techniques
by Clive A.J. Fletcher, C. A. Fletcher,
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5-Computational Fluid Dynamics:
Principles and Applications 2001-06
by Jiri Blazek
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6- Optimization and Computational Fluid Dynamics
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7- Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics 2006:
Parallel Computing and its Applications
by Jang-Hyuk Kwon, Jacques Periaux, Pat Fox, N. Satofuka, A. Ecer
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8- An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics :
The Finite Volume Method Approach
by H. Versteeg W. Malalasekra
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9- Computational Fluid Dynamics for Engineers:
From Panel to Navier-Stokes Methods with Computer Programs
by Tuncer Cebeci, Jian P. Shao, Fassi Kafyeke, Eric Laurendeau,
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10- Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics 2004
by Gabriel Winter, Jacques Periaux, Pat Fox, A. Ecer, N. Satofuka
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11- Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics
by Anil W. Date
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